List of Symbols
Symbols  Units 
= Slope of energy grade line 
~

= Friction slope 
~

= Slope of bed 
~

t = time 
s

= change in time 
s

T = Top width of the channel 
ft

v = Local velocity 
ft/s

V = Average velocity  ft/s 
W = Width  ft 
x = xdirection in Cartesian Coordinate System  ft 
y = ydirection in Cartesian Coordinate System  ft 
z = Distance from datum to culvert invert  ft 
= Kinetic energy correction factor  ~ 
= Specific weight of the fluid  
= Boundary of grid element  ft 
= Width of square grid  ft 
= Flow angle between x and ydirections  ~ 
= Density of the fluid  
= Shear stress  
= Shear stress at the bed  
= Phase lag  s 